Academic Year 2023/2024 - Teacher: Michele MESSINA

Expected Learning Outcomes

The course is divided into two parts. The first part of the course concerns the design of wind turbines, while the second is devoted to the study of reciprocating internal combustion engines. The course provides the basis for the aerodynamic design of wind turbines (horizontal and vertical axis wind turbines) and the evaluation of their performance. With regard to reciprocating internal combustion engines (ICE) the course provides students with the basis for the design, focusing on key aspects such as Performance Optimization, Engine Cycle Simulation, ICE Combustion, Pollutant Formation and Control. During the course will be carried out numerical simulations on the computer.

Course Structure

Lectures (39 hours) and numerical exercises (52 hours).

Required Prerequisites

Fluid Machines (Cultural)


Attendance of Lessons


Detailed Course Content


Classification. Maximum efficiency, internal thermodynamic efficiency and organic efficiency.

- Combustion at constant volume and/or constant pressure.

- Feeding air. - Filling in 4-strokes engines: general data, detailed study, analysis of the distribution equipment. Filling in 2-strokes engines: general data, outlines of washing, analysis of the washing process.

- Feeding fuel in spark-ignition engines. General requirements. Elementary carburettor. Injector.

- Feeding fuel in the compression-ignition engines. Requirements in terms of atomization and penetration of the jet. Injection Systems. Common Rail System.

 - Biofuels.

- Notes on Supercharging.

- Combustion – General data- Combustion in spark-ignition engines -  Octane number. ICE-SI Combustion.

- Combustion in compression-ignition engines . Cetane number. 

- Emissions of polluting agents: harmful effects, mechanisms of formation, influence of operation parameters. 

- Numerical evaluation of the Heat Release in ICE-SI;

- Numerical evaluation of the Limit Cycle of a ICE-SI;

- Numerical evaluation of ICE pollutants.

-Hybrid vehicles


Wind turbine technology. Fundamental concept of wind turbine engineering.

Wind turbines mathematical models. Airfoil characterization. Lift and drag coefficient.

Blade Element Momemtum Theory.  Wind rotor performance evaluation. Application to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines and to Vertical Axis Wind Turbines. Power curves. Power and Torque coefficients. Wind Rotor Solidity. Off design performance evaluation.

 -Fluid Dynamic Design of an Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine;

 -Fluid Dynamic Design of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine.


Type of wind tunnels.

Wind tunnel components: Test section, diffuser, corners, Fan, Settling chamber. Honeycomb and screens.

Subsonic Wind tunnel design. Power consideration. Section loss coefficients. Energy Ratio.  Test section Flow quality.

-Fluid Dynamic Design of a Subsonic Wind Tunnel.

Textbook Information

[1] J.B. Heywood: "Internal combustion engine fundamentals", Mc Graw Hill
[2] G.Ferrari: "Motori a Combustione Interna", Società Editrice Esculapio
[3] Battisti L.: Gli impianti motori eolici, Green Place Energies
[4] Sphera DA, editor. Wind turbine technology: fundamental concepts of wind turbine engineering.
[5] Barlow, Rae, Pope: Low Speed Wind Tunnel Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Third Edition

[6] G.Ferrari: "Internal Combustion Engines", Società Editrice Esculapio

Course Planning

 SubjectsText References
1Motori alternativi a combustione interna [1], [2], [6]
2Turbine eoliche[3], [4]
3Gallerie del vento[5]

Learning Assessment

Learning Assessment Procedures

The exam consists of an oral test.

During the lessons, application exercises of the course contents are carried out, which aim to focus the students' attention on engineering problems, in particular on wind turbines and internal combustion engines.

The application exercises of the course contents and the topics covered during the lectures are discussed during the oral exam.

The evaluation during the oral interview will be based on: knowledge of the contents, the relevance of the answers with respect to the questions asked, the property of technical language, the ability to make connections between the contents of the program.

To guarantee equal opportunities and in compliance with current laws, students can request a meeting in order to plan any compensatory and/or dispensatory measure, according to the educational goals and specific needs. In this case, it is advisable to contact the CInAP (Centre for Active and Participated Integration - Services for Disabilities and/or SLD) professor of the Department where the Degree Course is included.